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24-二十四、Docker 安装 MySQL

MySQL 是当下最流行的可免费使用的关系型数据库系统,Docker 安装 MySQL 有两种方法

我们以当前最新的版本 8.0.11 安装为例

1. docker pull mysql

这种方法非常适合只需要使用 MySQL 的开发者

1、 查找 Docker Hub 上的 mysql 镜像


[root@localhost ~]# docker search mysql NAME DESCRIPTION OFFICIAL mysql widely used, open-source... [OK] mariadb MariaDB is a ... [OK] ...

有很多版本,我们选择官方的 mysql
2、 拉取官方的镜像,标签为 8.0.11


[root@localhost ~]# docker pull mysql:8.0.11 8.0.11: Pulling from library/mysql

3、 稍等片刻,就能在本地镜像列表里看到 8.0.11


[root@localhost ~]# docker images mysql REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE mysql 8.0.11 a8a59477268d 3 weeks ago 444.8 MB

2. 通过 Dockerfile 构建 MySQL

这种方式类似于自己编译安装,既可以不污染环境,又能学习如何编译安装 MySQL

1、 先创建目录 mysql , 用于存放后面的相关东西


[root@localhost ~]# mkdir -p ~/mysql/data ~/mysql/logs ~/mysql/conf
目录 说明
data 该目录将映射为mysql容器配置的数据文件存放路径
logs 该目录将映射为mysql容器的日志目录
conf 该目录里的配置文件将映射为mysql容器的配置文件

2、 进入创建的 mysql 目录,创建 conf/my.cnf 文件


[root@localhost ~] cd mysql [root@localhost mysql] vi conf/my.cnf

然后输入以下内容


[mysqld] pid-file = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock datadir = /var/lib/mysql secure-file-priv= NULL symbolic-links=0 # Custom config should go here !includedir /etc/mysql/conf.d/

3、 创建 docker-entrypoint.sh 文件


[root@localhost mysql]# touch docker-entrypoint.sh [root@localhost mysql]# chmod +x docker-entrypoint.sh [root@localhost mysql]# vi docker-entrypoint.sh

然后复制以下内容


# !/bin/bash # 删除第一行 # ! 之间的空格 set -eo pipefail shopt -s nullglob # if command starts with an option, prepend mysqld if [ "${1:0:1}" = '-' ]; then set -- mysqld "$@" fi # skip setup if they want an option that stops mysqld wantHelp= for arg; do case "$arg" in -'?'|--help|--print-defaults|-V|--version) wantHelp=1 break ;; esac done # usage: file_env VAR [DEFAULT] # ie: file_env 'XYZ_DB_PASSWORD' 'example' # (will allow for "$XYZ_DB_PASSWORD_FILE" to fill in the value of # "$XYZ_DB_PASSWORD" from a file, especially for Docker's secrets feature) file_env() { local var="$1" local fileVar="${var}_FILE" local def="${2:-}" if [ "${!var:-}" ] && [ "${!fileVar:-}" ]; then echo >&2 "error: both $var and $fileVar are set (but are exclusive)" exit 1 fi local val="$def" if [ "${!var:-}" ]; then val="${!var}" elif [ "${!fileVar:-}" ]; then val="$(< "${!fileVar}")" fi export "$var"="$val" unset "$fileVar" } # usage: process_init_file FILENAME MYSQLCOMMAND... # ie: process_init_file foo.sh mysql -uroot # (process a single initializer file, based on its extension. we define this # function here, so that initializer scripts (*.sh) can use the same logic, # potentially recursively, or override the logic used in subsequent calls) process_init_file() { local f="$1"; shift local mysql=( "$@" ) case "$f" in *.sh) echo "$0: running $f"; . "$f" ;; *.sql) echo "$0: running $f"; "${mysql[@]}" < "$f"; echo ;; *.sql.gz) echo "$0: running $f"; gunzip -c "$f" | "${mysql[@]}"; echo ;; *) echo "$0: ignoring $f" ;; esac echo } _check_config() { toRun=( "$@" --verbose --help ) if ! errors="$("${toRun[@]}" 2>&1 >/dev/null)"; then cat >&2 <<-EOM ERROR: mysqld failed while attempting to check config command was: "${toRun[*]}" $errors EOM exit 1 fi } # Fetch value from server config # We use mysqld --verbose --help instead of my_print_defaults because the # latter only show values present in config files, and not server defaults _get_config() { local conf="$1"; shift "$@" --verbose --help --log-bin-index="$(mktemp -u)" 2>/dev/null \ | awk '$1 == "'"$conf"'" && /^[^ \t]/ { sub(/^[^ \t]+[ \t]+/, ""); print; exit }' # match "datadir /some/path with/spaces in/it here" but not "--xyz=abc\n datadir (xyz)" } # allow the container to be started with `--user` if [ "$1" = 'mysqld' -a -z "$wantHelp" -a "$(id -u)" = '0' ]; then _check_config "$@" DATADIR="$(_get_config 'datadir' "$@")" mkdir -p "$DATADIR" chown -R mysql:mysql "$DATADIR" exec gosu mysql "$BASH_SOURCE" "$@" fi if [ "$1" = 'mysqld' -a -z "$wantHelp" ]; then # still need to check config, container may have started with --user _check_config "$@" # Get config DATADIR="$(_get_config 'datadir' "$@")" if [ ! -d "$DATADIR/mysql" ]; then file_env 'MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD' if [ -z "$MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD" -a -z "$MYSQL_ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD" -a -z "$MYSQL_RANDOM_ROOT_PASSWORD" ]; then echo >&2 'error: database is uninitialized and password option is not specified ' echo >&2 ' You need to specify one of MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD, MYSQL_ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD and MYSQL_RANDOM_ROOT_PASSWORD' exit 1 fi mkdir -p "$DATADIR" echo 'Initializing database' "$@" --initialize-insecure echo 'Database initialized' if command -v mysql_ssl_rsa_setup > /dev/null && [ ! -e "$DATADIR/server-key.pem" ]; then # https://github.com/mysql/mysql-server/blob/23032807537d8dd8ee4ec1c4d40f0633cd4e12f9/packaging/deb-in/extra/mysql-systemd-start#L81-L84 echo 'Initializing certificates' mysql_ssl_rsa_setup --datadir="$DATADIR" echo 'Certificates initialized' fi SOCKET="$(_get_config 'socket' "$@")" "$@" --skip-networking --socket="${SOCKET}" & pid="$!" mysql=( mysql --protocol=socket -uroot -hlocalhost --socket="${SOCKET}" ) for i in {30..0}; do if echo 'SELECT 1' | "${mysql[@]}" &> /dev/null; then break fi echo 'MySQL init process in progress...' sleep 1 done if [ "$i" = 0 ]; then echo >&2 'MySQL init process failed.' exit 1 fi if [ -z "$MYSQL_INITDB_SKIP_TZINFO" ]; then # sed is for https://bugs.mysql.com/bug.php?id=20545 mysql_tzinfo_to_sql /usr/share/zoneinfo | sed 's/Local time zone must be set--see zic manual page/FCTY/' | "${mysql[@]}" mysql fi if [ ! -z "$MYSQL_RANDOM_ROOT_PASSWORD" ]; then export MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD="$(pwgen -1 32)" echo "GENERATED ROOT PASSWORD: $MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD" fi rootCreate= # default root to listen for connections from anywhere file_env 'MYSQL_ROOT_HOST' '%' if [ ! -z "$MYSQL_ROOT_HOST" -a "$MYSQL_ROOT_HOST" != 'localhost' ]; then # no, we don't care if read finds a terminating character in this heredoc # https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/265149/why-is-set-o-errexit-breaking-this-read-heredoc-expression/265151#265151 read -r -d '' rootCreate <<-EOSQL || true CREATE USER 'root'@'${MYSQL_ROOT_HOST}' IDENTIFIED BY '${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD}' ; GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'root'@'${MYSQL_ROOT_HOST}' WITH GRANT OPTION ; EOSQL fi "${mysql[@]}" <<-EOSQL -- What's done in this file shouldn't be replicated -- or products like mysql-fabric won't work SET @@SESSION.SQL_LOG_BIN=0; ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD}' ; GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION ; ${rootCreate} DROP DATABASE IF EXISTS test ; FLUSH PRIVILEGES ; EOSQL if [ ! -z "$MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD" ]; then mysql+=( -p"${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD}" ) fi file_env 'MYSQL_DATABASE' if [ "$MYSQL_DATABASE" ]; then echo "CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS \`$MYSQL_DATABASE\` ;" | "${mysql[@]}" mysql+=( "$MYSQL_DATABASE" ) fi file_env 'MYSQL_USER' file_env 'MYSQL_PASSWORD' if [ "$MYSQL_USER" -a "$MYSQL_PASSWORD" ]; then echo "CREATE USER '$MYSQL_USER'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY '$MYSQL_PASSWORD' ;" | "${mysql[@]}" if [ "$MYSQL_DATABASE" ]; then echo "GRANT ALL ON \`$MYSQL_DATABASE\`.* TO '$MYSQL_USER'@'%' ;" | "${mysql[@]}" fi echo 'FLUSH PRIVILEGES ;' | "${mysql[@]}" fi echo for f in /docker-entrypoint-initdb.d/*; do process_init_file "$f" "${mysql[@]}" done if [ ! -z "$MYSQL_ONETIME_PASSWORD" ]; then "${mysql[@]}" <<-EOSQL ALTER USER 'root'@'%' PASSWORD EXPIRE; EOSQL fi if ! kill -s TERM "$pid" || ! wait "$pid"; then echo >&2 'MySQL init process failed.' exit 1 fi echo echo 'MySQL init process done. Ready for start up.' echo fi fi exec "$@"

4、 创建 Dockerfile


[root@localhost ~]# vi Dockerfile

然后输入以下内容


FROM debian:stretch-slim # add our user and group first to make sure their IDs get assigned consistently, regardless of whatever dependencies get added RUN groupadd -r mysql && useradd -r -g mysql mysql RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y --no-install-recommends gnupg dirmngr && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/* # add gosu for easy step-down from root ENV GOSU_VERSION 1.7 RUN set -x \ && apt-get update && apt-get install -y --no-install-recommends ca-certificates wget && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/* \ && wget -O /usr/local/bin/gosu "https://github.com/tianon/gosu/releases/download/$GOSU_VERSION/gosu-$(dpkg --print-architecture)" \ && chmod +x /usr/local/bin/gosu \ && gosu nobody true \ && apt-get purge -y --auto-remove ca-certificates wget RUN mkdir /docker-entrypoint-initdb.d RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y --no-install-recommends \ # for MYSQL_RANDOM_ROOT_PASSWORD pwgen \ # for mysql_ssl_rsa_setup openssl \ # FATAL ERROR: please install the following Perl modules before executing /usr/local/mysql/scripts/mysql_install_db: # File::Basename # File::Copy # Sys::Hostname # Data::Dumper perl \ && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/* ENV MYSQL_MAJOR 8.0 ENV MYSQL_VERSION 8.0.11-1debian9 RUN echo "deb http://repo.mysql.com/apt/debian/ stretch mysql-${MYSQL_MAJOR}" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mysql.list # the "/var/lib/mysql" stuff here is because the mysql-server postinst doesn't have an explicit way to disable the mysql_install_db codepath besides having a database already "configured" (ie, stuff in /var/lib/mysql/mysql) # also, we set debconf keys to make APT a little quieter RUN { \ echo mysql-community-server mysql-community-server/data-dir select ''; \ echo mysql-community-server mysql-community-server/root-pass password ''; \ echo mysql-community-server mysql-community-server/re-root-pass password ''; \ echo mysql-community-server mysql-community-server/remove-test-db select false; \ } | debconf-set-selections \ && apt-get update && apt-get install -y mysql-community-client-core="${MYSQL_VERSION}" mysql-community-server-core="${MYSQL_VERSION}" --allow-unauthenticated && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/* \ && rm -rf /var/lib/mysql && mkdir -p /var/lib/mysql /var/run/mysqld \ && chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql /var/run/mysqld \ # ensure that /var/run/mysqld (used for socket and lock files) is writable regardless of the UID our mysqld instance ends up having at runtime && chmod 777 /var/run/mysqld VOLUME /var/lib/mysql # Config files COPY conf/ /etc/mysql/ COPY docker-entrypoint.sh /usr/local/bin/ RUN ln -s usr/local/bin/docker-entrypoint.sh /entrypoint.sh # backwards compat ENTRYPOINT ["docker-entrypoint.sh"] EXPOSE 3306 CMD ["mysqld"]

5、 通过 Dockerfile 创建镜像 my-mysql:8.0.11


[root@localhost mysql]# docker build -t my-mysql:8.0.11 .

6、 稍等片刻,创建完成后,可以在本地的镜像列表里查找到刚刚创建的镜像


[root@localhost ~]# docker images my-mysql REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE my-mysql 8.0.11 e730da928e07 11 days ago 444 MB

运行 mysql 镜像

可以使用下面的命令运行 mysql 容器


[root@localhost mysql]# docker run -p 3306:3306 --name mysql -v $PWD/logs:/logs -v $PWD/data:/mysql_data -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=123456 -d mysql:8.0.11 d53f278d7e1273c4b503e98d46cbb571fe0b496a141467ebf7dae9ee57baf59

参数说明

1、 -p 3306:3306

将容器的 3306 端口映射到主机的 3306 端口
2、 -v $PWD/logs:/logs

将主机当前目录下的 logs 目录挂载到容器的 /logs
3、 -v $PWD/data:/mysql_data

将主机当前目录下的 data 目录挂载到容器的 /mysql_data
4、 -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=123456 初始化 root 用户的密码

如果你想要定制 my.cnf 可以使用下面的参数挂载 my.cnf 文件


-v $PWD/conf/my.cnf:/etc/mysql/my.cnf

查看容器启动情况


[root@localhost mysql] docker ps -a CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND ... d8e8585e8 my-mysql:8.0.11 "docker-entrypoint.sh" ...
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标题:24-二十四、Docker 安装 MySQL

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