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SpringBoot教程第23篇:异步方法

这篇文章主要介绍在springboot 使用异步方法,去请求github api.

创建工程

在pom文件引入相关依赖:

<dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.fasterxml.jackson.core</groupId>
            <artifactId>jackson-databind</artifactId>
        </dependency>

创建一个接收数据的实体:

@JsonIgnoreProperties(ignoreUnknown=true)
public class User {

    private String name;
    private String blog;

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public String getBlog() {
        return blog;
    }

    public void setBlog(String blog) {
        this.blog = blog;
    }

    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "User [name=" + name + ", blog=" + blog + "]";
    }

}

创建一个请求的 githib的service:

@Service
public class GitHubLookupService {

    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(GitHubLookupService.class);

    private final RestTemplate restTemplate;

    public GitHubLookupService(RestTemplateBuilder restTemplateBuilder) {
        this.restTemplate = restTemplateBuilder.build();
    }

    @Async
    public Future<User> findUser(String user) throws InterruptedException {
        logger.info("Looking up " + user);
        String url = String.format("https://api.github.com/users/%s", user);
        User results = restTemplate.getForObject(url, User.class);
        // Artificial delay of 1s for demonstration purposes
        Thread.sleep(1000L);
        return new AsyncResult<>(results);
    }

}

通过,RestTemplate去请求,另外加上类@Async 表明是一个异步任务。

开启异步任务:


@SpringBootApplication @EnableAsync public class Application extends AsyncConfigurerSupport { public static void main(String[] args) { SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args); } @Override public Executor getAsyncExecutor() { ThreadPoolTaskExecutor executor = new ThreadPoolTaskExecutor(); executor.setCorePoolSize(2); executor.setMaxPoolSize(2); executor.setQueueCapacity(500); executor.setThreadNamePrefix("GithubLookup-"); executor.initialize(); return executor; } }

通过@EnableAsync开启异步任务;并且配置AsyncConfigurerSupport,比如最大的线程池为2.

测试

测试代码如下:

@Component
public class AppRunner implements CommandLineRunner {

    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(AppRunner.class);

    private final GitHubLookupService gitHubLookupService;

    public AppRunner(GitHubLookupService gitHubLookupService) {
        this.gitHubLookupService = gitHubLookupService;
    }

    @Override
    public void run(String... args) throws Exception {
        // Start the clock
        long start = System.currentTimeMillis();

        // Kick of multiple, asynchronous lookups
        Future<User> page1 = gitHubLookupService.findUser("PivotalSoftware");
        Future<User> page2 = gitHubLookupService.findUser("CloudFoundry");
        Future<User> page3 = gitHubLookupService.findUser("Spring-Projects");

        // Wait until they are all done
        while (!(page1.isDone() && page2.isDone() && page3.isDone())) {
            Thread.sleep(10); //10-millisecond pause between each check
        }

        // Print results, including elapsed time
        logger.info("Elapsed time: " + (System.currentTimeMillis() - start));
        logger.info("--> " + page1.get());
        logger.info("--> " + page2.get());
        logger.info("--> " + page3.get());
    }

}

启动程序,控制台会打印:

2017-04-30 13:11:10.351 INFO 1511 — [ GithubLookup-1] com.forezp.service.GitHubLookupService : Looking up PivotalSoftware
2017-04-30 13:11:10.351 INFO 1511 — [ GithubLookup-2] com.forezp.service.GitHubLookupService : Looking up CloudFoundry
2017-04-30 13:11:13.144 INFO 1511 — [ GithubLookup-2] com.forezp.service.GitHubLookupService : Looking up Spring-Projects

耗时:3908

分析:可以卡的前面2个方法分别在GithubLookup-1 和GithubLookup-2执行,第三个在GithubLookup-2执行,注意因为在配置线程池的时候最大线程为2.如果你把线程池的个数为3的时候,耗时减少。

如果去掉@Async,你会发现,执行这三个方法都在main线程中执行。耗时总结,如下:

2017-04-30 13:13:00.934 INFO 1527 — [ main] com.forezp.service.GitHubLookupService : Looking up PivotalSoftware
2017-04-30 13:13:03.571 INFO 1527 — [ main] com.forezp.service.GitHubLookupService : Looking up CloudFoundry
2017-04-30 13:13:04.865 INFO 1527 — [ main] com.forezp.service.GitHubLookupService : Looking up Spring-Projects

耗时:5261

通过这一个小的栗子,你应该对异步任务有了一定的了解。

参考资料

https://spring.io/guides/gs/async-method/

源码下载

https://github.com/forezp/SpringBootLearning

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