1. 首页
  2. elasticsearch教程

16-十六、Elasticsearch 教程: 索引 API

本章节我们要介绍的这些 API 用于管理索引的所有方面的内容,如设置,别名,映射,索引模板

创建索引

这个 API 可以用来创建索引

当用户将 JSON 对象传递给任何索引时,可以自动创建索引

当然,也可以不传递任何数据,而是使用默认设置创建一个索引

要创建索引,只需要发送带有设置,映射和别名的 HTTP POST 请求,或者只是一个没有正文的简单请求

例如下面的请求使用默认设置创建一个索引


PUT http://localhost:9200/colleges?pretty

返回响应


{ "acknowledged" : true, "shards_acknowledged" : true, "index" : "colleges" }

或者发起请求的时候可以传递一个设置


PUT http://localhost:9200/colleges2?pretty

请求正文


{ "settings" : { "index" : { "number_of_shards" : 5, "number_of_replicas" : 3 } } }

返回响应


{ "acknowledged" : true, "shards_acknowledged" : true, "index" : "colleges2" }

传递的配置中还可以携带映射数据


PUT http://localhost:9200/colleges3?pretty

请求正文


{ "settings" : { "number_of_shards" : 3 }, "mappings" : { "type1" : { "_source" : { "enabled" : false }, "properties" : { "college_name" : { "type" : "string" }, "college_type" : {"type":"string"} } } } }

返回响应


{ "acknowledged" : true, "shards_acknowledged" : true, "index" : "colleges3" }

或创建索引时同时创建别名


PUT http://localhost:9200/colleges4?pretty

请求正文


{ "aliases" : { "alias_1" : {}, "alias_2" : { "filter" : { "term" : {"user" : "manu" } }, "routing" : "manu" } } }

返回响应


{ "acknowledged" : true, "shards_acknowledged" : true, "index" : "colleges4" }

删除索引

发起一个 HTTP DELETE 请求就可以删除某个索引,语法如下


DELETE http://localhost:9200/<index_name>

&lt;index_name> 为想要删除的索引名,例如要删除 colleges4 索引,可以这样


DELETE http://localhost:9200/colleges4

如果想要删除所有的索引,可以使用 _all 关键字,如下


DELETE http://localhost:9200/_all

获取一个索引

发起一个 HTTP GET 请求就可以获取某个索引

语法如下


GET http://localhost:9200/<index_name>

&lt;index_name> 为想要获取的索引名,例如要获取 user_admin 索引,可以这样


GET http://localhost:9200/user_admin

返回响应内容


{ "user_admin" : { "aliases" : { }, "mappings" : { "user" : { "properties" : { "city" : { "type" : "text", "fields" : { "keyword" : { "type" : "keyword", "ignore_above" : 256 } } }, "description" : { "type" : "text", "fields" : { "keyword" : { "type" : "keyword", "ignore_above" : 256 } } }, "interests" : { "type" : "text", "fielddata" : true }, "location" : { "type" : "float" }, "money" : { "type" : "long" }, "nickname" : { "type" : "text", "fields" : { "keyword" : { "type" : "keyword", "ignore_above" : 256 } }, "fielddata" : true }, "state" : { "type" : "text", "fields" : { "keyword" : { "type" : "keyword", "ignore_above" : 256 } } }, "street" : { "type" : "text", "fields" : { "keyword" : { "type" : "keyword", "ignore_above" : 256 } } }, "tags" : { "type" : "text", "fields" : { "keyword" : { "type" : "keyword", "ignore_above" : 256 } } }, "vitality" : { "type" : "text", "fields" : { "keyword" : { "type" : "keyword", "ignore_above" : 256 } } }, "zip" : { "type" : "text", "fields" : { "keyword" : { "type" : "keyword", "ignore_above" : 256 } } } } } }, "settings" : { "index" : { "creation_date" : "1530187334876", "number_of_shards" : "5", "number_of_replicas" : "1", "uuid" : "_acBr-_YSCiaHImp1VObGg", "version" : { "created" : "6030099" }, "provided_name" : "user_admin" } } } }

如果想要获取多个所以,可以使用逗号分隔想要获取的多个索引名,如下


GET http://localhost:9200/user,user_admin

如果想要获取所有的索引,可以使用 _all 关键字或星号 ( * ),如下


GET http://localhost:9200/_all


GET http://localhost:9200/*

判断索引是否存在

判断所以是否存在的方法很简单,只要想那个所以发起一个请求即可,如果返回的响应状态码是 200 则说明存在,如果返回的状态码为 404 则说明不存在

打开或关闭索引

打开或关闭一个索引的方法很简单,只要发起一个 HTTP POST 请求并在 URL 中添加 _close_open 路径参数即可

例如下面的请求用于关闭索引 python


POST http://localhost:9200/python/_close

而打开索引 python 则可以这样


POST http://localhost:9200/python/_open

请求别名

发起一个 HTTP POST 请求并在 URL 中添加 _aliases 路径参数即可为任何索引创建一个别名

单个别名可以映射到多个,但是别名不能和索引名一样

例如


POST http://localhost:9200/_aliases?pretty

请求正文


{ "actions" : [ { "add" : { "index" : "user", "alias" : "user_nor" } } ] }

响应内容


{ "acknowledged": true }

创建了别名后我们就可以使用别名来获取索引


GET http://localhost:9200/user_nor?pretty

返回内容


{ "user": { "aliases": { "user_nor": {} }, "mappings": { "user": { "properties": { "city": { "type": "text", "fields": { "keyword": { "type": "keyword", "ignore_above": 256 } } }, "description": { "type": "text", "fields": { "keyword": { "type": "keyword", "ignore_above": 256 } } }, "interests": { "type": "text", "fielddata": true }, "location": { "type": "float" }, "money": { "type": "long" }, "nickname": { "type": "text", "fields": { "keyword": { "type": "keyword", "ignore_above": 256 } }, "fielddata": true }, "state": { "type": "text", "fields": { "keyword": { "type": "keyword", "ignore_above": 256 } } }, "street": { "type": "text", "fields": { "keyword": { "type": "keyword", "ignore_above": 256 } } }, "tags": { "type": "text", "fields": { "keyword": { "type": "keyword", "ignore_above": 256 } } }, "vitality": { "type": "text", "fields": { "keyword": { "type": "keyword", "ignore_above": 256 } } }, "zip": { "type": "text", "fields": { "keyword": { "type": "keyword", "ignore_above": 256 } } } } } }, "settings": { "index": { "creation_date": "1530189785122", "number_of_shards": "5", "number_of_replicas": "1", "uuid": "VYLD0ybxRLeVB_KsJ8ZjDw", "version": { "created": "6030099" }, "provided_name": "user" } } } }

索引设置

通过发送一个 HTTP GET 请求并向 URL 中添加 _settings 路径参数来获取某个索引的设置


GET http://localhost:9200/schools/_settings?pretty

返回响应


{ "schools":{ "settings":{ "index":{ "creation_date":"1454409831535", "number_of_shards":"5", "number_of_replicas":"1", "uuid":"iKdjTtXQSMCW4xZMhpsOVA", "version":{"created":"2010199"} } } } }

分析

可以通过向 /_analyze 发起一个 HTTP POST 请求并传递需要分析的文本和分析器类型来分析一段文本


POST http://localhost:9200/_analyze

请求正文


{ "analyzer" : "standard", "text" : "you are reading this at tutorials point" }

返回响应


{ "tokens":[ {"token":"you", "start_offset":0, "end_offset":3, "type":"<ALPHANUM>", "position":0}, {"token":"are", "start_offset":4, "end_offset":7, "type":"<ALPHANUM>", "position":1}, {"token":"reading", "start_offset":8, "end_offset":15, "type":"<ALPHANUM>", "position":2}, {"token":"this", "start_offset":16, "end_offset":20, "type":"<ALPHANUM>", "position":3}, {"token":"at", "start_offset":21, "end_offset":23, "type":"<ALPHANUM>", "position":4}, {"token":"tutorials", "start_offset":24, "end_offset":33, "type":"<ALPHANUM>", "position":5}, {"token":"point", "start_offset":34, "end_offset":39, "type":"<ALPHANUM>", "position":6} ] }

我们也可以通过使用索引来分析文本,Elasticsearch 会使用索引相关联的分析器来分析文本

索引模板

我们可以使用映射来创建一个索引模板,然后可以将该索引模版用于新的索引中

例如


POST http://localhost:9200/_template/template_a?pretty

请求正文


{ "template" : "tu*", "settings" : { "number_of_shards" : 3 }, "mappings" : { "chapter" : { "_source" : { "enabled" : false } } } }

这样,任何以 tu 开头的索引都会默认使用 template_a 模板相同的设置

索引统计

可以向某个索引发起一个 HTTP GET 请求并在 URL 中添加 _stats 路径参数来获取某个索引的统计信息

例如


GET http://localhost:9200/user/_stats?pretty

返回响应


{ "_shards": { "total": 10, "successful": 5, "failed": 0 }, "_all": { "primaries": { "docs": { "count": 2, "deleted": 0 }, "store": { "size_in_bytes": 18005 }, "indexing": { "index_total": 0, "index_time_in_millis": 0, "index_current": 0, "index_failed": 0, "delete_total": 0, "delete_time_in_millis": 0, "delete_current": 0, "noop_update_total": 0, "is_throttled": false, "throttle_time_in_millis": 0 }, "get": { "total": 1, "time_in_millis": 9, "exists_total": 1, "exists_time_in_millis": 9, "missing_total": 0, "missing_time_in_millis": 0, "current": 0 }, "search": { "open_contexts": 0, "query_total": 55, "query_time_in_millis": 434, "query_current": 0, "fetch_total": 8, "fetch_time_in_millis": 6, "fetch_current": 0, "scroll_total": 0, "scroll_time_in_millis": 0, "scroll_current": 0, "suggest_total": 0, "suggest_time_in_millis": 0, "suggest_current": 0 }, "merges": { "current": 0, "current_docs": 0, "current_size_in_bytes": 0, "total": 0, "total_time_in_millis": 0, "total_docs": 0, "total_size_in_bytes": 0, "total_stopped_time_in_millis": 0, "total_throttled_time_in_millis": 0, "total_auto_throttle_in_bytes": 104857600 }, "refresh": { "total": 15, "total_time_in_millis": 0, "listeners": 0 }, "flush": { "total": 5, "periodic": 0, "total_time_in_millis": 11 }, "warmer": { "current": 0, "total": 5, "total_time_in_millis": 0 }, "query_cache": { "memory_size_in_bytes": 0, "total_count": 0, "hit_count": 0, "miss_count": 0, "cache_size": 0, "cache_count": 0, "evictions": 0 }, "fielddata": { "memory_size_in_bytes": 756, "evictions": 0 }, "completion": { "size_in_bytes": 0 }, "segments": { "count": 2, "memory_in_bytes": 10114, "terms_memory_in_bytes": 7778, "stored_fields_memory_in_bytes": 624, "term_vectors_memory_in_bytes": 0, "norms_memory_in_bytes": 1024, "points_memory_in_bytes": 8, "doc_values_memory_in_bytes": 680, "index_writer_memory_in_bytes": 0, "version_map_memory_in_bytes": 0, "fixed_bit_set_memory_in_bytes": 0, "max_unsafe_auto_id_timestamp": -1, "file_sizes": {} }, "translog": { "operations": 2, "size_in_bytes": 1502, "uncommitted_operations": 0, "uncommitted_size_in_bytes": 550, "earliest_last_modified_age": 0 }, "request_cache": { "memory_size_in_bytes": 0, "evictions": 0, "hit_count": 0, "miss_count": 0 }, "recovery": { "current_as_source": 0, "current_as_target": 0, "throttle_time_in_millis": 0 } }, "total": { "docs": { "count": 2, "deleted": 0 }, "store": { "size_in_bytes": 18005 }, "indexing": { "index_total": 0, "index_time_in_millis": 0, "index_current": 0, "index_failed": 0, "delete_total": 0, "delete_time_in_millis": 0, "delete_current": 0, "noop_update_total": 0, "is_throttled": false, "throttle_time_in_millis": 0 }, "get": { "total": 1, "time_in_millis": 9, "exists_total": 1, "exists_time_in_millis": 9, "missing_total": 0, "missing_time_in_millis": 0, "current": 0 }, "search": { "open_contexts": 0, "query_total": 55, "query_time_in_millis": 434, "query_current": 0, "fetch_total": 8, "fetch_time_in_millis": 6, "fetch_current": 0, "scroll_total": 0, "scroll_time_in_millis": 0, "scroll_current": 0, "suggest_total": 0, "suggest_time_in_millis": 0, "suggest_current": 0 }, "merges": { "current": 0, "current_docs": 0, "current_size_in_bytes": 0, "total": 0, "total_time_in_millis": 0, "total_docs": 0, "total_size_in_bytes": 0, "total_stopped_time_in_millis": 0, "total_throttled_time_in_millis": 0, "total_auto_throttle_in_bytes": 104857600 }, "refresh": { "total": 15, "total_time_in_millis": 0, "listeners": 0 }, "flush": { "total": 5, "periodic": 0, "total_time_in_millis": 11 }, "warmer": { "current": 0, "total": 5, "total_time_in_millis": 0 }, "query_cache": { "memory_size_in_bytes": 0, "total_count": 0, "hit_count": 0, "miss_count": 0, "cache_size": 0, "cache_count": 0, "evictions": 0 }, "fielddata": { "memory_size_in_bytes": 756, "evictions": 0 }, "completion": { "size_in_bytes": 0 }, "segments": { "count": 2, "memory_in_bytes": 10114, "terms_memory_in_bytes": 7778, "stored_fields_memory_in_bytes": 624, "term_vectors_memory_in_bytes": 0, "norms_memory_in_bytes": 1024, "points_memory_in_bytes": 8, "doc_values_memory_in_bytes": 680, "index_writer_memory_in_bytes": 0, "version_map_memory_in_bytes": 0, "fixed_bit_set_memory_in_bytes": 0, "max_unsafe_auto_id_timestamp": -1, "file_sizes": {} }, "translog": { "operations": 2, "size_in_bytes": 1502, "uncommitted_operations": 0, "uncommitted_size_in_bytes": 550, "earliest_last_modified_age": 0 }, "request_cache": { "memory_size_in_bytes": 0, "evictions": 0, "hit_count": 0, "miss_count": 0 }, "recovery": { "current_as_source": 0, "current_as_target": 0, "throttle_time_in_millis": 0 } } }, "indices": { "user": { "primaries": { "docs": { "count": 2, "deleted": 0 }, "store": { "size_in_bytes": 18005 }, "indexing": { "index_total": 0, "index_time_in_millis": 0, "index_current": 0, "index_failed": 0, "delete_total": 0, "delete_time_in_millis": 0, "delete_current": 0, "noop_update_total": 0, "is_throttled": false, "throttle_time_in_millis": 0 }, "get": { "total": 1, "time_in_millis": 9, "exists_total": 1, "exists_time_in_millis": 9, "missing_total": 0, "missing_time_in_millis": 0, "current": 0 }, "search": { "open_contexts": 0, "query_total": 55, "query_time_in_millis": 434, "query_current": 0, "fetch_total": 8, "fetch_time_in_millis": 6, "fetch_current": 0, "scroll_total": 0, "scroll_time_in_millis": 0, "scroll_current": 0, "suggest_total": 0, "suggest_time_in_millis": 0, "suggest_current": 0 }, "merges": { "current": 0, "current_docs": 0, "current_size_in_bytes": 0, "total": 0, "total_time_in_millis": 0, "total_docs": 0, "total_size_in_bytes": 0, "total_stopped_time_in_millis": 0, "total_throttled_time_in_millis": 0, "total_auto_throttle_in_bytes": 104857600 }, "refresh": { "total": 15, "total_time_in_millis": 0, "listeners": 0 }, "flush": { "total": 5, "periodic": 0, "total_time_in_millis": 11 }, "warmer": { "current": 0, "total": 5, "total_time_in_millis": 0 }, "query_cache": { "memory_size_in_bytes": 0, "total_count": 0, "hit_count": 0, "miss_count": 0, "cache_size": 0, "cache_count": 0, "evictions": 0 }, "fielddata": { "memory_size_in_bytes": 756, "evictions": 0 }, "completion": { "size_in_bytes": 0 }, "segments": { "count": 2, "memory_in_bytes": 10114, "terms_memory_in_bytes": 7778, "stored_fields_memory_in_bytes": 624, "term_vectors_memory_in_bytes": 0, "norms_memory_in_bytes": 1024, "points_memory_in_bytes": 8, "doc_values_memory_in_bytes": 680, "index_writer_memory_in_bytes": 0, "version_map_memory_in_bytes": 0, "fixed_bit_set_memory_in_bytes": 0, "max_unsafe_auto_id_timestamp": -1, "file_sizes": {} }, "translog": { "operations": 2, "size_in_bytes": 1502, "uncommitted_operations": 0, "uncommitted_size_in_bytes": 550, "earliest_last_modified_age": 0 }, "request_cache": { "memory_size_in_bytes": 0, "evictions": 0, "hit_count": 0, "miss_count": 0 }, "recovery": { "current_as_source": 0, "current_as_target": 0, "throttle_time_in_millis": 0 } }, "total": { "docs": { "count": 2, "deleted": 0 }, "store": { "size_in_bytes": 18005 }, "indexing": { "index_total": 0, "index_time_in_millis": 0, "index_current": 0, "index_failed": 0, "delete_total": 0, "delete_time_in_millis": 0, "delete_current": 0, "noop_update_total": 0, "is_throttled": false, "throttle_time_in_millis": 0 }, "get": { "total": 1, "time_in_millis": 9, "exists_total": 1, "exists_time_in_millis": 9, "missing_total": 0, "missing_time_in_millis": 0, "current": 0 }, "search": { "open_contexts": 0, "query_total": 55, "query_time_in_millis": 434, "query_current": 0, "fetch_total": 8, "fetch_time_in_millis": 6, "fetch_current": 0, "scroll_total": 0, "scroll_time_in_millis": 0, "scroll_current": 0, "suggest_total": 0, "suggest_time_in_millis": 0, "suggest_current": 0 }, "merges": { "current": 0, "current_docs": 0, "current_size_in_bytes": 0, "total": 0, "total_time_in_millis": 0, "total_docs": 0, "total_size_in_bytes": 0, "total_stopped_time_in_millis": 0, "total_throttled_time_in_millis": 0, "total_auto_throttle_in_bytes": 104857600 }, "refresh": { "total": 15, "total_time_in_millis": 0, "listeners": 0 }, "flush": { "total": 5, "periodic": 0, "total_time_in_millis": 11 }, "warmer": { "current": 0, "total": 5, "total_time_in_millis": 0 }, "query_cache": { "memory_size_in_bytes": 0, "total_count": 0, "hit_count": 0, "miss_count": 0, "cache_size": 0, "cache_count": 0, "evictions": 0 }, "fielddata": { "memory_size_in_bytes": 756, "evictions": 0 }, "completion": { "size_in_bytes": 0 }, "segments": { "count": 2, "memory_in_bytes": 10114, "terms_memory_in_bytes": 7778, "stored_fields_memory_in_bytes": 624, "term_vectors_memory_in_bytes": 0, "norms_memory_in_bytes": 1024, "points_memory_in_bytes": 8, "doc_values_memory_in_bytes": 680, "index_writer_memory_in_bytes": 0, "version_map_memory_in_bytes": 0, "fixed_bit_set_memory_in_bytes": 0, "max_unsafe_auto_id_timestamp": -1, "file_sizes": {} }, "translog": { "operations": 2, "size_in_bytes": 1502, "uncommitted_operations": 0, "uncommitted_size_in_bytes": 550, "earliest_last_modified_age": 0 }, "request_cache": { "memory_size_in_bytes": 0, "evictions": 0, "hit_count": 0, "miss_count": 0 }, "recovery": { "current_as_source": 0, "current_as_target": 0, "throttle_time_in_millis": 0 } } } } }

刷新索引缓冲区

刷新索引缓冲区指的是清除索引内存中的数据并将其迁移到索引存储,并清除内部事务日志

刷新索引缓冲区的方法很简单,只要向一个索引发起一个 HTTP GET 请求并在 URL 中添加 _flush 路径参数即可

例如


GET http://localhost:9200/user/_flush?pretty

返回响应


{ "_shards": { "total": 10, "successful": 5, "failed": 0 } }

刷新索引

Elasticsearch 默认内置了刷新机制

当然我们也可以手动显式刷新索引

方法就是向一个索引发起一个 HTTP GET 请求并在 URL 中添加 _refresh 路径参数即可

例如


GET http://localhost:9200/user/_refresh?pretty

返回内容


{ "_shards": { "total": 10, "successful": 5, "failed": 0 } }

希望读者能够给小编留言,也可以点击[此处扫下面二维码关注微信公众号](https://www.ycbbs.vip/?p=28 "此处扫下面二维码关注微信公众号")

JS中文网,Javascriptc中文网是中国领先的新一代开发者社区和专业的技术媒体,一个帮助开发者成长的社区,是给开发者用的 Hacker News,技术文章由为你筛选出最优质的干货,其中包括:Android、iOS、前端、后端等方面的内容。目前已经覆盖和服务了超过 300 万开发者,你每天都可以在这里找到技术世界的头条内容。

本文著作权归作者所有,如若转载,请注明出处

转载请注明:文章转载自「 Java极客技术学习 」https://www.javajike.com

标题:16-十六、Elasticsearch 教程: 索引 API

链接:https://www.javajike.com/article/1259.html

« 17-十七、Elasticsearch 教程: 集群管理 API
15-十五、Elasticsearch 教程: 聚合计算»

相关推荐

QR code